Docker is the newest iteration of linux containers - self-contained, chroot-like minature VM. Docker is an OSS product, produced by https://www.docker.com/ .
Installing it on Mac OS X requires installing VirtualBox, Docker and boot2docker. I used Home Brew package manager to install (I had VirtualBox installed already)
brew install docker
brew install boot2docker
The up command returns three environment variables DOCKER_CERT_PATH, DOCKER_TLS_VERIFY and DOCKER_HOST that need to be exported to your environment.
After this, docker is installed and ready to use.
Find a list of docker images with the command
Initially there will be no images. When using docker to create a new image, the actual image is downloaded and installed. After that first install, that image will be available for future use.
Creating first Docker Container
Let's create a CentOS container.
docker run --rm -i -t centos /bin/bash
That's it. All the needed packages will be downloaded and installed
You will be popped into a root prompt of the container - essentially a fully featured CentOS system with its own filesystem, network stack, IP, etc.
--rm means it will destroyed on exit
-i means interactive (because we are running /bin/bash inside the centos image)
Compute to heart's content. Exit with Control-D and the container is destroyed.
Creating a non-transient docker image
docker run -i -t centos /bin/bash
Make changes to this container (create files) and exit
Now, the command "docker ps -a" should show a new container.
You can save the state of this container aas a new image using
docker commit CONTAINERID NAME
after which "docker images" should show the new image listed with NAME.
Dockerfiles are bootstrap files that can be associated with an image. It can be used to install new packages, mount filesystems, execute commands, etc. Sample docker files are shared by the OSS community on hub.docker.com